ПРЯНЫЕ И АРОМАТИЧЕСКИЕ РАСТЕНИЯ В ПСИХИАТРИИ И НЕВРОЛОГИИ: НАУЧНЫЙ ОБЗОР. ЧАСТЬ I.

Roman Aleksandrovich Bekker, Yuriy Vitalevich Bykov


Аннотация


Цель исследования: Представить читателю подробный исторический обзор о применении пряных и ароматических растений в психиатрии и неврологии, а также данные современных исследований об их эффективности в терапии различных психических и психосоматических патологий, нейродегенеративных заболеваний.

Методология проведения работы: В качестве начальной отправной точки для нашей работы мы взяли список всех применяемых в кулинарии различных народов специй и приправ из английской Википедии, как один из наиболее полных подобных списков в Интернете (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_spices). Затем мы изучили современную доказательную базу и исторические данные о применении каждого из упомянутых в данном списке растений, используя поисковые системы PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, и представили найденные данные в настоящем обзоре.

Результаты: Полученные нами в результате составления настоящего обзора данные свидетельствуют о значительном терапевтическом потенциале многих пряных и ароматических растений в психиатрии и неврологии, в особенности в лечении лёгких форм тревожных и депрессивных расстройств, лёгких когнитивных нарушений, а также в лечении таких психосоматических заболеваний, как синдром раздражённого кишечника, мигрень, синдром предменструального напряжения, климактерические расстройства. Доказательная база для применения в психиатрии и неврологии разных пряных и ароматических растений различна по качеству. Для одних пряных и ароматических растений и извлечённых из них биологически активных веществ пока существуют лишь данные экспериментов на животных в сочетании с эмпирическим опытом народной медицины, для других – имеются предварительные обнадёживающие результаты открытых пилотных исследований на человеке, для третьих, таких, как куркумин, сафранал – положительные результаты небольших рандомизированных клинических испытаний. Важно, однако, то, что исследование психотропного и нейротропного потенциала пряных и ароматических растений, судя по количеству публикаций именно в последние годы (2013–2017), рассматривается как одно из перспективных направлений для поиска новых антидепрессантов, анксиолитиков и антидементных препаратов.

Область применения результатов: Полученные нами результаты дают теоретические и практические основания для применения экстрактов из некоторых пряных и ароматических растений, таких, как куркумин, сафранал, пиперин, эфирное масло лаванды, в лечении лёгких форм тревожных и депрессивных состояний, лёгких когнитивных нарушений, особенно у пациентов, отказывающихся от фармакотерапии или плохо её переносящих.


Ключевые слова


пряности; пряные растения; ароматические растения; история психиатрии; шафран; анис; бадьян; черный перец; имбирь; ваниль; куркума; кумин; кориандр; корица; базилик; тимьян; пажитник; сельдерей; манго; лук; чеснок; горчица; мелисса; шалфей; кожура цитрусо

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Литература


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.12731/wsd-2018-1-90-123

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