ОСОБЕННОСТИ ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ ДИАМЕТРА ЭРИТРОЦИТОВ В КРОВИ СПОРТСМЕНОВ В УСЛОВИЯХ ФИЗИЧЕСКОЙ НАГРУЗКИ

Lidiya Yurevna Rubtsova, Natalya Nikolaevna Potolitsyna, Nikolay Petrovich Mongalev


Аннотация


Цель. Изучить характер распределения эритроцитов по диаметру в циркулирующей крови лыжников-гонщиков в период достижения порога анаэробного обмена (ПАНО).

Материалы и методы. Обследованы лыжники-гонщики (юноши и мужчины, девушки и женщины) в условиях физической нагрузки на велоэргометре в возрасте 17–37 лет (n=33) с квалификацией КМС и МС. Исследование проведено согласно протоколу, утвержденному локальным комитетом по биоэтике при Институте физиологии Коми научного центра Уральского отделения Российской академии наук. Пробы крови брали из локтевой вены натощак, затем из капилляров пальца до, – на пороге анаэробного обмена, после выполнения нагрузки «до отказа» и через 5 мин восстановления.

На окрашенных мазках крови измеряли диаметр 50 эритроцитов (Лабораторные …, 1987). Результаты обрабатывали статистически с использованием пакета прикладных программ Windows (Basic, 2011).

Результаты. На этапе ПАНО у 36% спортсменов определили увеличение среднего диаметра эритроцитов с 7,46±0,06 до 7,68±0,08 мкм (р<0,05), без изменений у 12% (7,45±0,04 – 7,43±0,05 мкм) и уменьшение размера клеток у 52% с 7,51±0,04 до 7,35±0,05 мкм (р<0,05). В условиях максимальной нагрузки (337,1±12,4 Вт у мужчин и 246,7±10,8 Вт у женщин) и на 5-й мин восстановления диаметр эритроцитов в крови спортсменов возвращался к исходному значению.

Заключение. Таким образом, индивидуальный характер изменения среднего диаметра эритроцитов у спортсменов проявляется во время достижения ПАНО и, вероятно, соответствует избирательной элиминации преимущественно макро- или микроцитов.


Ключевые слова


диаметр эритроцитов; физическая нагрузка; ПАНО

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.12731/wsd-2017-2-121-141

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(c) 2017 Lidiya Yurevna Rubtsova, Natalya Nikolaevna Potolitsyna, Nikolay Petrovich Mongalev

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